Experimental and observational studies

Experimental and observational studies The statistical analysis of a dataset is always dependent on how the data have been collected. An experimental study, e.g. a randomised clinical trial, can be designed in such a way that validity problems (selection bias, misclassification bias, confounding bias) are prevented, for example using concealed treatment allocation, randomisation of patients… Continue reading Experimental and observational studies


Terminology In order to communicate without misunderstandings, it is important to realise that in contrast to spoken language, a combination of words; gestures; facial expressions; and with possibilities for immediate questioning and correcting, written language relies entirely on usage of the right words and compliance with the grammatical rules for combining these into understandable sentences… Continue reading Terminology


reMarkable I started reviewing manuscripts on paper, but the manuscript handling was soon digitalised and manuscripts distributed via email. At first, I found it difficult to read manuscripts on screen. I printed out the manuscripts on a laser printer, but the waste of paper was substantial. After many attempts, I eventually got used to reading… Continue reading reMarkable


Reviewing It is commonly believed that the line between knowledge and ignorance is clear and that scientific research systematically expands knowledge by reducing ignorance. However, what we think we know is a mixture of facts and beliefs. Here I use the term fact to describe something that is based on empirical evidence and has been… Continue reading Reviewing