HARKing It is quite easy to get a manuscript accepted in a scientific journal if only a few basic requirements are met, i.e. a reasonably interesting research question, a sound study design, and generally acceptable results. Unfortunately, the chance of succeeding with this in a randomised trial is not great. Randomised trials are expensive, time-consuming,… Continue reading HARKing

Experimental and observational studies

Experimental and observational studies The statistical analysis of a dataset is always dependent on how the data have been collected. An experimental study, e.g. a randomised clinical trial, can be designed in such a way that validity problems (selection bias, misclassification bias, confounding bias) are prevented, for example using concealed treatment allocation, randomisation of patients… Continue reading Experimental and observational studies


Terminology In order to communicate without misunderstandings, it is important to realise that in contrast to spoken language, a combination of words; gestures; facial expressions; and with possibilities for immediate questioning and correcting, written language relies entirely on usage of the right words and compliance with the grammatical rules for combining these into understandable sentences… Continue reading Terminology